Everything soluble, given enough time, eventually ends up in the sea.
The rivers of the world dump billions of tons of minerals into the oceans each year and have for eons. Undersea volcanoes, hot springs and volcanic eruptions on land have also added billions of tons of elements. Ninety percent of all volcanic activity on Earth occurs in the oceans. Additionally seawater is a biological soup of active organic substances. Life on Earth is totally dependent on water and water comprises 60% - 70% of all living matter. The surface of the Earth is 71% covered by the water of the world’s oceans.
According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 50% of all the species of life on Earth are found in the sea. In fact, NOAA states that the oceans represent our planet’s largest habitat, containing 99% of the planet’s living space. As a consequence of covering nearly three quarters of Earth’s surface, the oceans are the planet’s largest interceptors of solar wind and transducers of solar energy. Transduction is the transfer of energy from one form to another. One method of solar energy transduction in the oceans is the creation of organic matter through photosynthesis by phytoplankton and photosynthesizing marine bacteria. This may be described as the transmutation of radiant energy into matter. Marine phytoplankton’s are so abundant they are credited with the manufacture of nearly 50% of the oxygen found in Earth’s atmosphere. In addition to the compounds that are byproducts of photosynthesis, the waters of the oceans contain 89 elements in measurable amounts. Every element that occurs in nature is found in the sea. An enormous amount of Fulvic acid flows from the land to the sea as well. In total, the seas of the world are estimated to contain as much as fifty quadrillion tons (50,000,000,000,000,000) of dissolved solids. If these dissolved minerals could be removed from the seas and spread on the land as dried solids they would cover all the land surfaces of planet Earth with a layer of minerals 150 meter thick. Fulvic acid is estimated to be composed of over 50,000 different organic compounds. Due to its complexity, no one knows all of its components. Fulvic acid contains fragments of long chain organic compounds such as DNA, RNA, vitamins, hormones and enzymes that have degraded to the point that they become stable and then persist in nature for long periods of time.
10 Most Common Elements in Seawater
|Oxygen ||85.84% ||Sulfur ||0.091% |
|Hydrogen ||10.82% ||Calcium ||0.04% |
|Chloride ||1.94% ||Potassium ||0.04% |
|Sodium ||1.08% ||Bromine ||0.0067% |
|Magnesium ||0.1292% ||Carbon ||0.0028% |
The presence of phosphorus enables growth of the photosynthesizing plankton known as phytoplankton. This plankton spend their lives in the presence of sodium, as in sodium chloride. To prevent too much sodium from entering their cells and inhibiting their function, they coat themselves with a mucopolysaccharide exudate named dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP).DMSP has an osmoregulatory function, that protects the cells from changes in salinity and temperature. Phytoplankton produced DMSP plays a major role in planetary weather and the carbon and sulfur cycle in the seas. DMSP is food for zooplankton. In other words phytoplankton are plants that earn their living by intercepting photons from sunlight and transforming that energy into carbohydrates and proteins. They are at the bottom of the marine food chain. Most of the DMSP released into seawater as a byproduct of the phytoplankton lifecycle is immediately fed upon by bacteria and retained in the marine food chain. There it provides nearly all of the sulfur required in the diet of these microbes. A much smaller portion of the DMSP is acted upon by an enzyme called DMSP-lyase produced by other bacteria. One of the products of this enzyme action is the volatile compound dimethylsulfide (DMS). Although marine microbes metabolize much of the DMS, each year about 50 million tons of this chemical compound escape, as a gas, to the atmosphere where it acts as a cloud seeding agent. It is this cloud seeding activity of DMS, derived from DMSP, which makes
phytoplankton a major player in planetary weather.Seawater is a major habitat for microbes; we are only beginning to learn about marine microbes. The only bacteria that can be studied are the ones that can be raised in laboratories and marine bacteria are notoriously difficult to culture. Only a few strains have been successfully cultured and extensively studied.
Taken together, both the extensive mineral content and the many organic compounds present make seawater a stew of considerable complexity. This is not just salt water. The fluid that covers nearly three fourths of our planet is home to the major part of life on Earth and it is the activity of life in the seas that makes life on land possible.
The constant effects of climate: freezing, thawing, rainfall and erosion combined with mankind's historically poor stewardship of the land and increasing acidic rain cause topsoil minerals to go into solution. These mineral solutions enter streams and rivers that subsequently flow into the sea. These minerals hold the key to human health and that it makes perfect sense to recapture them and use them to feed plant man and animal.
Immediately after the Second World War, In an ever increasing world population with less farmland, a new and modern agricultural paradigm reigned the world. The new paradigm was based on the use of fertilizers, new hybrids and chemicals to protect the plants against weed, pest and diseases. This process resulted in plants, and crops that contain much lower levels of minerals and vitamins than were found prior to the instigation of these new methods.Top soil injection with animal dung is like liquid ammonia nitrate injection that kills topsoil earthworms. Earthworms make minerals more bioavailable. Roundup (glyphosate) is a very strong chelating agent that sequesters minerals and can tie them up indefinitely. Minerals are required for all metabolic processes. Mineral malnutrition cause degenerative autoimmune diseases. Mineral content in our food is alarmingly low.
Seawater concentrate research
Dr. René Quinton, French doctor, biologist, biochemist and physiologist observed that seawater had remarkable similarities to blood plasma. In 1904 Dr. Quintonpublished the book ”Sea Water Organic Medium” in which he described his research into the relationship between blood plasma and seawater. He did experiments with dogs by removing most of their blood and replacing it with seawater extract. Not only did the dogs survive, they remained in an excellent state of health. Dr. Quinton went on to develop an injectable form of purified seawater that was used as a replacement for blood plasma during World War I, saving thousands of lives with seawater.
Dr. Maynard Murray, medical doctor and research scientist, pioneered the use of seawater and seawater concentrate for agriculture. Starting in the late 1930s and continuing until his passing in 1983 he performed well documented trials with plants and animals.
“My research clearly indicates the reason Americans generally lack a complete physiological chemistry is that the balanced, essential elements of the soil have eroded to the sea; consequently, crops are nutritionally poor, and the animals eating these plants are, therefore, nutritionally poor . . . We must alter the way we grow our food, the way we protect our plants from pests and disease, and the way we process our food.” ~ Dr. Maynard Murray
Continuingresearchhas led to aseawaterconcentrate loaded with trace minerals andbioactiveparticles. Low in sodium and averyhighbio-activity. This activityis defined withthe aid ofalgae oryeast (CO2)measurements. Through this research seawater extract has become economical for broad-based agricultural application.
Measurements in bioactivity showed that if the extract was allowed to dry out completely much of the bioactivity was lost. Further testing revealed that if the extract was dried in an oxidizing atmosphere, at a temperature sufficient to burn off all contained carbon, the resulting pure mineral concentrate had little observable bioactivity at the same application rate previously used. The wetfiltrationtechniquesusedare the onlyguarantee for an active stableproduct. As a result of these experiments, a working hypothesis was developed. It was postulated that active organic substances in seawater, working together with the plentiful trace minerals, were responsible for the observed bioactivity when the extract was used as a plant and soil stimulant.
So how does Seawater Concentrate works?
Dr. Maynard Murray found that using seawater concentrate enhanced both yield and quality for every crop on which it was used. In addition, when those harvested crops were feed to chickens, pigs and cattle, they reached maturity much sooner than control animals fed conventionally raised crops. They were also much healthier and disease resistant than the controls. Our seawater concentrate has shown the ability to give the same kinds of results as those that Dr. Murray achieved, but only with a few liters per hectare. Cattle on pasture that has been treated with seawater concentrate or fed hay made from seawater concentrate, responded the same way as the cattle in Dr. Murrays’s trials. Due to the fact that in our productthe sodium chloride content is reduced with 95%, it can also be beneficially given directly to animals in their water or on their feed.
The complete understanding how seawater concentrates work is so far unknown. However some working assumptions can be made what supposedly is happening.
1. Providing all bioavailable elements for mineral cofactors, enables enhanced enzyme formation by plants, soil bacteria, fungi and soil fauna of all kinds from the most microscopic, all the way up in the food chain to the macro flora, earthworms, birds and small mammals that feed on them. Enzymes are used by bacteria that form part ofthe digestive systems of both plants and animals whether they are internal, such those in our gut, or external like those of plants, fungi and bacteria.
2. The "antenna" system of a plant that gathers the solar energy consists of hundreds of pigment molecules. Increased enzyme formation increases plant pigment production. This leads to a greater ability to photosynthesize and transfer solar energy to the plant for ATP production, and sugars exudates from the root hairs to the symbiotic entities in the rhizosphere. Plants that have been treated with seawater concentrates often develop root systems that are 20% to 30% larger than untreated controls. ATP or Adenosine triphosphate is a coenzyme used as an energy carrier in the cells of all known organisms
3. Increased growth hormones such as auxin and messenger molecules such as cytokinins. Auxin is a growth hormone that is manufactured in the solar factories in the top part of a plant. Cytokinins are phytohormones , that promote cell division , in plant roots and shoots they are responsible for new root formation. Cytokinins act in concert with auxin .
4. Increased metabolite production of all kinds in the top part of the plant would mean increased root exudates in the rhizosphere which would mean more food for an increased population of microflora helpers like nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere of the plant tend to supply more fixed nitrogen during growth stages when the plant exhibits a high demand for nitrogen.
These are working assumptions that may change as we acquire more knowledge.
“Primarily due to discoveries made in the large-scale raising of cattle, hogs, and chickens, we have learned that trace minerals are among the most important components of good health—and even life itself. A full complement of the 72-84 trace elements is essential for optimum health.” ~ Jon Barronnutritional researcher
Soils vary widely in their trace mineral nutrient content. When crops year after year are grown and harvested the soil will deplete of its minerals by some degree each season. The agricultural crops removed from the farm also remove the minerals that they contain. It is a form of mining and it leads to depleted and worn out soils. It may still be possible to stimulate plants to grow in these soils by adding nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers, but the nutritional value of these plants will be as incomplete as the soils in which they are grown. The USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) has documented that the trace mineral and ultra-trace mineral content of the worn out farm soils in the USA have undergone very pronounced depletion. As a consequence, the USDA has also documented that the mineral content of food crops and fodder grown on these soils, has undergone severe decline. For example, according to USDA compiled statistics from 1914 to 1992, a period of eighty years, the mineral content of the average apple has declined severely. As the data in the following table show, calcium has declined by 48%, phosphorus 85%, iron 96%, potassium 2%, and magnesium 83%.
80 Year Decline in Mineral Content of One Medium Apple
|Mineral ||1914 ||1963 ||1992 ||%Change |
|Calcium ||13.5 mg ||7.0 mg ||7.0 mg ||48.5% |
|Phosphorus ||45.2 mg ||10.0 mg ||7.0 mg ||84.51% |
|Iron ||4.6 mg ||0.3 mg ||0.18 mg ||96.09% |
|Potassium ||117.0 mg ||110.0 mg ||115.0 mg ||1.71% |
|Magnesium ||28.9 mg ||8.0 mg ||5.0 mg ||82.70%|
In web link below shows the decreased mineral content in meat and vegetables. And a direct statistical relationship with various diseases http://www.nutritionsecurity.org/PDF/NSI_White%20Paper_Web.pdf
Free radicals and Nutritional density
ORAC: is the acronym for Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity. It quantifies antioxidant activity
Following text is written by Doctor E. van den Worm, of ORAC Europe, for Hak Agro Feed. It describes the importance of antioxidants for plant and animal health their place in human nutrition and some test results.
Antioxidants and free radicals
Antioxidants are molecules that are capable of protecting the human body against so-called 'free radicals' and other harmful compounds that are released within the body as a result of oxidative reactions. Free radicals are very reactive oxygen metabolites which, when produced in excess amounts, can cause damage to tissues and organs. Common free radicals are for example superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (·OH) and lipid peroxyl radical (ROO·).
Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by neutralizing the unpaired electron that makes free radicals so highly reactive. Scientific research has shown that antioxidants can play a protective role in a number of diseases in which oxidative stress and free radicals play a role such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.
In humans, antioxidants can originate from external (food) sources as well as being produced endogenously. Well-known examples of antioxidants originating from food are vitamins such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E), but also a number of plant-derived compounds possess strong antioxidative capacities. An important group of bioactive molecules showing potent antioxidative capacities are plant constituents such as anthocyanins (plant-pigments), carotenoids and polyphenols (especially flavonoids) from vegetables and fruits and fat-soluble antioxidants from vegetable oils.
Plants are capable of producing numerous amounts of very diverse molecules. Besides molecules originating from the so-called primary metabolism which mainly serve processes such as CO2 assimilation, energy exchange and growth, plants contain many molecules which are products of the secondary metabolism. These secondary metabolites are all more or less produced to protect and maintain the plant itself. Some molecules fend off predators like insects and herbivores, while other molecules attract insects that are important for pollination. The amounts of secondary metabolites within a certain plant are very variable and are highly depending on all sorts of (environmental) factors. Thus, plants that are under attack by insects or fungi will contain higher concentrations of protective molecules than plants that are free of attacks. Also external factors such as soil conditions, soil hydrology and sunlight conditions can cause significant differences in (secondary) metabolite concentrations. Furthermore, in commercially important plants such as vegetables and fruits, specific varieties and cultivars also play an important role.
Plants can produce a huge variety of antioxidative molecules. Anthocyanins and pigments responsible for many of the bright colors of fruits and flowers, offer the plant protection from free radicals originating from oxidative stress or exposure to UV radiation.
Flavonoids form another important group of molecules that possess strong antioxidant capacity and thereby are able to protect the plant from all kind of potential harmful oxidation processes. Because many antioxidants also belong to the secondary plant metabolites, the amounts of these molecules in plants can also significantly fluctuate depending on plant species and environmental conditions. Concentrations of plant antioxidants also highly depend on the developmental stage of the plant.
The fact that plants can react to outside threats by producing protective molecules, may very well explain some of the recent observations by several scientific study-groups, investigating the quality of organic vegetables and fruits. In press releases by leaders of this European research, it was revealed that organic crops show higher amounts of antioxidants than conventionally grown crops. It was shown that organic tomatoes, wheat, potatoes, cabbages and onions contain 20-40% more antioxidants. They also showed that organic milk contained on average about 60% more antioxidants, among which 50% more vitamin E and 75% more β-carotene. These findings seem to confirm the idea that plants in fact do not just ‘randomly’ produce all kind of constituents, but that these metabolites play a vital role in the survival strategy of the plant. After all, in organic farming no or far less pesticides are used which may give insects and fungi a bigger change to attack these plants. This will lead to enhanced stress levels in these plants. Therefore, these plants have to produce higher concentrations of protective molecules to maintain themselves.
So, by exposing plants to increased stress levels, these plants may be stimulated to produce higher amounts of secondary metabolites, thereby also producing higher concentrations of antioxidants.
Effect of Immutines on antioxidant capacity of cucumbers
In a total of three studies, effects of Immutines-addition to the water during the growing process of cucumbers were investigated. Cucumbers were rooted on rockwool and grown in greenhouses and during distinct periods, several concentrations of Immutineswere added to the water which was administrated to the growing plants (0.5, 1, 1.5, 3 en 4 ml/m2/week, respectively).
From data delivered by the growing company, it appeared that after harvesting the average weight of the Immutines-treated cucumbers was slightly higher than that of the control cucumbers (non-treated cucumbers).
Additionally, a mineral analysis showed that the Immutines-treated cucumbers absorbed 9-20% more of the administrated mineral mixture compared to the control cucumbers.
By using the standardized and validated ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) method, the antioxidant capacity of the Immutines-treated cucumbers was determined and compared to that of the control cucumbers (non-treated cucumbers).
(Also see ORAC Europe reports of September 2008, May 2009 and July 2009).
From the results obtained by the antioxidant capacity determinations performed by ORAC Europe BV, the following conclusions can be drawn:
- The antioxidant capacity of Immutines-treated cucumbers (expressed as hydrophilic ORAC value) was 29-37% higher than the antioxidant capacity of control cucumbers.
It appears that addition of Immutines to the water during the growth process may lead to a higher concentration of antioxidants or molecules with an antioxidative effect in these cucumbers, which ultimately results in a higher ORAC value (per unit of weight).
However, no concentration-dependent effects of Immutinesadministration were detected. The measured increases in antioxidant capacity after administration ofImmutines in concentrations of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3 en 4 ml/m2/week, were 8.7%, 36.6%, 33.3%, 37% en 29.7%, respectively.
The increase of antioxidant capacity already seems to reach a maximum level after administration of an Immutines concentration of 1 ml/m2/week (and higher). Probably, further increasing the Immutines concentration will not lead to a further increase in antioxidant capacity.
Determination of dry weight:
- The determined dry weights (by way of freeze-drying) of the Immutines-treated cucumbers (concentrations of 3 ml/m2/week and 4 ml/m2/week) were respectively 4.2% en 7.1% higher than the dry weight of control cucumbers. (No dry weights were determined of the 1 ml/m2/week and 1.5 ml/m2/week Immutines-treated cucumbers).
The experimental data of the by ORAC Europe BV performed analyses, are described in ORAC Europe test-reports 20080923, 20090604 en 20090703. See PDF research section
There are many reasons to use seawater concentrate for agriculture. Among these reasons are increased yield at harvest, improved soil tilth, increased soil micro flora, better drought tolerance, increased nutrient density (such as vitamin and mineral content which produces better flavor, keeping qualitiesand health for the consumer), improved plant health and overall vigor that makes plants more disease and insect resistant. Both in our research and in the work of Dr. Maynard Murray we see an increase in weight.
|Solids % ||Control||Treated||Increase%|
|Onions (Bulb) ||13.6 ||14.2 %||4.4% |
|Oats ||87.7 ||87.8 %||0.1% |
|Sweet Potatoes ||28.8 ||31.2 %||8.3% |
|Tomatoes ||4.8 ||5.7 %||18.7% |
|Soy Beans ||73.9 ||84.7 %||14.6%|
Sea Energy Agriculture
The increased dry matter weight comes from additional minerals taken up by the plant as well as a greater content of metabolites such as additional carbohydrates, vitamins, plant hormones and proteins. All factors which are beneficial for plant growth and disease control. For a short sighted farmer selling his crops off the farm, nutrient density may have no importance. It is another matter entirely for the end users. Humans and animals. Over the years a multitude of tests has been done with, always higher yields and always higher dry matter contents. Taken in account the low dosage per hectare we can say it is a very inexpensive extremely powerful nutrient. Given the low dosage it produces unexplainable bioactivity. In a different section of this website you can read more about the different animal and plant tests.
Terminology Application Dosage Literature
The North American seawater concentrate Sea-Crop is certified by the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) as animal feed. Immutines has been GMP certified. The EU considers Sea water concentrates not as animal feed. It can be limitless used in agriculture and horticulture.
As a result of the GMP certification, each production batch is analyzed for heavy metals and dioxin. One need not worry that people, pets or farm animals will come to harm from the presence of Immutines in their environment. Thus far, all animal and plant species tested, without exception have benefited from the application of Immutines seawater mineral concentrates.
Immutines is very versatile and can be used in a variety of ways. Some large corn and soybean farmers have good results with a single application each season. This can take place either in the furrow with the seed, at planting, or after emergence when the plants are 15 to 20 cm high.
There are farmers with high value crops who use Immutines as a foliar spray every two weeks. Trials using the product as a root dip or seed soak have given good results even when no further follow-up treatment was given.
Following are the procedures that we believe will give the best results for general use.
Immutines seawater extract may be used on all food and non-food crops. It may be applied directly to the soil, to the roots or applied as a foliar spray.
IMMUTINES AND SEA-CROP are one and the same product. This website uses both names.
The product must be diluted before application.
Use at a concentration of 1% to 2% strength. One liter on 49 liter of water equals a 2% solution. One tablespoons of Immutines per ¾ liter of water equals a 2% solution.
Diluted Immutines can be used as a soil drench. Use a minimum of 3 applications per season applied at 3 week intervals starting at planting, transplanting or after emergence. A good alternative is to do one soil application followed by two foliar applications after emergence.
Diluted Immutines can be used as a foliar spray. A minimum of 3 applications per season applied at 3 week intervals are recommended.
Annual non diluted application rates
- Apply 35 liter per hectare.
- Apply 17 to 35 liter per hectare.
Trees and Orchards:
- Medium size trees; 90 cm to 1,8 m: use 100 ml per tree, not to exceed 100 liter per hectare.
- Large trees; 1,8 m to 3,6 m: use 150 ml per tree, not to exceed 100 liter per hectare.
Lawns and Turf:
- Apply 17 to 35 liter per hectare.
- Use Immutines as you would use any agricultural manure or nutrient.
- For best results, never mix Immutine with synthetic fertilizers, insecticides or herbicides.
Seed & plant Soak:
- Immutines may be used as a seed & plant treatment. Soak seed or plant to be sown or planted in a 2% strength solution for 1 hour immediately prior to sowing or planting. This will result in superior germination or growth.
- Sweet peppers, cucumbers, tomatoes and flowers from 2 to 5 ml per m2 per week
Pot culture :
- Orchids (Phalenopsus ) in pots of 2liter 0.5 ml twice before flowering and 1 time during flowering when transported for sale.
- Orchids (Dendrepodium) Orchids (Phalenopsus ) in pots of 10 to 25 liter 2,5 to 15 ml twice before flowering and 1 time during flowering when transported for sale.
- Immutines can be used as a supplement. The product can be added to drinking water, wet mash or solid food. The dosage is 0.02-0.05 ml per kilogram body weight. This is about 1/5 to1 / 2 teaspoon per 45 kg.
Poultry: 200 ml per 1000 liters of drinking water.
1: What is Seawater?
1. “NASA Satellite Sees Ocean Plants Increase, Coasts Greening” Science Daily, (Mar. 9, 2005)
2. Jed A. Fuhrman, “Marine viruses and their biogeochemical and ecological effects”, Nature 399, 541-548, (10 June 1999)
3. Herbert Swenson, “Why Is the Ocean Salty?” Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), (1983)
4. Katina Bucher Norris, “Dimethylsulfide Emission: Climate Control by Marine Algae?” Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts, (Nov., 2003)
2: A History of Seawater Concentrate Research
1. Maynard Murray, M.D., “Sea Energy Agriculture” Acres U.S.A., (2003)
2. Maynard Murray, “Process of Applying Sea Solids as Fertilizer” US Patent # 3,071,457, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, (Jan., 1, 1963)
3: The Benefits of Seawater Concentrate
1. Maynard Murray, M.D., “Sea Energy Agriculture” Acres U.S.A., (2003)
2. Jonathan D. Kaplan, “Managing Manure in California’s Central Valley’ Dept. of Economics, California State University Sacramento, PDF file referenced May 2, 2012
4: Nutrient Density
1. William A. Albrecht, Ph. D., “Soil Fertility & Animal Health”, Acres U.S.A., (2005)
5: How Plants Grow
1. “Metalloprotein” Wikipedia, referenced (May 2, 2012)
1. Maynard Murray, M.D., “Sea Energy Agriculture” Acres U.S.A., (2003)